Thứ Hai, ngày 13 tháng 1 năm 2014

Skin Tags

Skin Tags Skin tags are small bits of hanging particles from the skin. It develops on both men and women on the chest, neck and groin area. Normally the skin tags occur on the area in which there is friction of skin to cloth. They run in families and are passed on to the child from the parents. The number of skin tags increases as you grow old and normally it is seen on 25-30% of adults. In medical terms, they are called as ‘acrochordon” and other names are fibromas or fibro-epithelial polyps.


What are the problems faced when one gets skin tag ?


Skin tags are benign (non cancerous) in nature. Except for cosmetic purpose, they are harmless and do not cause any pain or discomfort for the person. But the person may get irritated due to the ugly appearance of skin tags on the arms and chest.


On very rare occasions, skin tag may result in bleeding of skin or it may cause death to the tissues of the skin. For some women, it may irritate them while wearing jewelry on the chest area causing discomfort.


Causes :


Exact reason what causes skin tag is not known. It is believed to occur when there is friction between the skin folds. It may grow on the chest, underarms, below the breasts, neck, eyelids and even on groin.


If you are obese, you are prone to get skin tags often. Age factor also increases the risk of getting skin tags.


Some say that skin tags are inherited by birth and it keeps running on family. People with other type of skin problems and Crohn’s disese are likely to get skin tags in their life.


Excess of hormone can trigger the formation of skin tags. This is more particular in women when they become pregnant.


Symptoms :


Skin tags take the color of the skin or it may grow slightly dark brown in color. The size of the tag may vary from 1mm to 3cm and looks either smooth or wrinkled in appearance. They are attached to the skin by stalk and for some people it is seen in the form of raised bumps from the stalk. When the skin tag is cut off from the blood supply it may change into black or red in color. If they are tied with clothing, it may bleed and cause discomfort.


Is there any chance for skin tag to become tumor?


Skin tags are benign and harmless and they do not cause cancer even after long period. But one has to monitor if there is any change in the color of the skin tag and may do skin biopsy to get rid of the chance of getting cancer.


Unlike warts, skin tags are not contagious and do not spread from one person to other.


Pictures of Skin Tags :


Images, Pics, Images and Photos of Skin Tags


Skin Tags Skin Tags Skin Tags Skin Tags Skin Tags Skin Tags Skin Tags Skin Tags
Treatment :


Generally no treatment is required for removing skin tags since they are harmless. But for cosmetic purpose, people may remove it. It does not wither off from the skin on its own though it is very rare occurrence.


You can tie it off using a piece of string or dental floss which will gradually fall from the skin.


Other methods of removing skin tag are by electro cautery method in which it is burnt using current. You can try removing it cutting it off with the scissors but it may recur.


Doctors may freeze the tag using liquid nitrogen. Normally no anesthesia is needed for electro cautering if the size of the skin tag is small. However it can cause pain and discomfort in case if big sized tags are removed. So doctors may give you local anesthesia for creating temporary numbness in the area before removal.


Topical creams like betacaine or LMX 5% is applied on the skin tags before this method for anesthetizing the area. No ointment is currently available for easy removal of skin tags.


Itchy Neck

Itchy Neck Itchy neck is called pruritus in medical terms and this gives you an irritating sensation to scratch the neck very often. There may be reddening of the skin in the neck along with swelling and irritation. The skin may become sore and start flaking when it is getting irritated intensely. Scratching the skin often will not give relief from irritation but it may worsen the situation causing more scarring and discomfort.


Causes :


Number of factors cause itchy neck. It can be due to insect bite from bee or other insects, infection or due to allergic reaction. Some medical condition like chicken pox can also cause reddening of the skin with itching. Eczema is another skin allergy that causes itchy neck. It can also occur due to dandruff or head lice and scabies.


Chronic problems in kidney can also induce itching sensation in the neck. Obstructive bile disease which may cause block in the bile ducts can cause this condition.


Normal type of itchy neck will get settled on its own after some time. But if itching continues with other symptoms like fever, breathlessness, vomiting or nausea then you have to seek emergency medical treatment, since it can be a symptom of serious problem like anaphylaxis or any other serious allergy.


Itchy neck can be the outcome of increased stress and autoimmune disorders. Some cosmetics like dye or detergents can trigger this reaction. Even wearing metallic jewelry can cause irritation due to allergy. Food allergy can induce itchy neck on some people.


Candidasis, chicken pox and eczema are some of the infectious diseases that cause itchy neck.


Other causes of itchy neck are certain medications, psoriasis and extreme cold or hot weather.


Symptoms :


Generally the neck portion will be itchy and it can cause mild discomfort to the person. For some people there can be other local symptoms like redness of the skin, warmth, swelling, skin rashes, flaking of skin and pain.


When itchy neck is due to some serious medical issues, then the person may get fever, chills, runny nose, breathlessness, stiffness in joints and profuse sweating.


Very rarely there may be serious itching along with fever and shortness of breath. If it is caused by serious allergy then there may be excessive swelling of the skin with tightness on the throat and difficulty in breathing. You should not delay in visiting the hospital if you have any of such serious symptoms.


Pictures of Itchy Neck :


Images, Pics, Pictures and Photos of Itchy Neck


Itchy Neck Itchy Neck Itchy Neck Itchy Neck Itchy Neck Itchy Neck
Treatment :


For mild to moderate itch, you can try some home remedies. Get yourself immersed in a tub of cold water to get some relief from itching. Apply topical ointments like hydrocortisone to control inflammation. You can take antihistamines obtained over the counter which reduces the itch considerably.


Try using the paste of water with baking soda on the itchy area to manage itching. Take oatmeal bath and immerse in the tub containing warm water with little salt.


Wipe the affected area with olive oil and apply some moisturizing cream. You can use Aloe Vera for getting instant relief from itching.


Elephantitis

Elephantitis Elephantitis is characterized by abnormal swelling of tissues and the skin in the lower portion of the body. The main target organs are legs and genitals which become thick and baggy making it difficult for the affected person to lead life normally. There will be excess of fluid collection on the legs and lower trunk making the skin dark and ulcerated. In medical terms, this disease is called as lymphatic filariasis since it is caused by filarial spreading mosquito. In severe cases, there can be serious complications causing damage to the blood vessels and may be life-threatening.


Causes :


Lymphatic filariasis is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, a parasite that is being carried by mosquito. These microorganisms are like round-worms and get transmitted into the human body when the mosquito bites the person. They enter the lymphatic vessels causing abnormal swelling of tissues and skin and in rare cases, can damage the blood vessels. Parasites belonging to the group Brugia malayl and Brugia timori may also cause this disease. The inflammation can be due to the response of the body’s immune system to the parasite.


The lymph flow of blood gets affected when there is obstruction in the lymph. Owing to the blockage, there may be inflammation of blood vessels causing back pressure which would dilate the superficial vessels causing more swelling.


Non-filarial elephantiasis is non-parasitic and is caused by the exposure to intense form of volcanic ashes. People who walk barefoot on the soil may receive the poisonous chemicals present in the soil which would eventually affect the lymphatic system and cause swelling.


Hereditary lymph edema is inherited by birth in which the lymph vessels become swollen due to accumulation of fluid.


Symptoms :


Abnormal swelling of skin and tissues, thickening and darkening of the skin in the lower extremes, pain in the testicles, fever and enlargement of lymph nodes in the groin are some of the common symptoms. Excess of fluid gets accumulated in the tissues of legs (edema) causing inflammation and pain. The skin on the legs gets pebbly appearance with discharge of liquids along with pain and discomfort.


In case of chronic infection, it can affect other organs like liver and spleen making it enlarged. The legs and genitals become massively swollen. For males, the scrotum gets abnormally enlarged and penis may get retracted under the thickened skin. In female, the vulva may be affected and a huge mass of thick layer of skin may be seen growing between the thighs. The lymph nodes of the legs get enlarged.


Pictures of Elephantitis :


Images, Pics, Pictures and Photos of Elephantitis


Elephantitis Elephantitis Elephantitis Elephantitis Elephantitis Elephantitis
Treatment :


Elephantitis infection can be treated with antibiotics for destroying the growth of parasite present in the lymphatic vessels. Drugs like lyermectin, diethlycarbamazine, suramin and metrifonate are given. Some doctors also prescribe doxycycline for controlling the growth of parasite. However medications should be started as early as the infection starts and symptoms begin to appear.


The patient can prevent secondary infection by cleaning the infected legs daily by antiseptic lotions and soaps.


Surgery is done only for scrotal elephantiasis in which the scrotum gets abnormally enlarged. Surgical procedure is employed in case there is severe damage to the lymphatic nodes for removing them. However the surgery has to be repeated several times for clearing the thickened tissue and dead worms.


Joint Inflammation

Joint Inflammation Joint inflammation is the swelling of joints that can occur in any joint of the body. Joint inflammation is commonly called as arthritis in medical terms. Joint pain can develop due to minor injuries, fractures, and infection. When a particular joint is affected, the body response system of immunity is called into action and a series of events occur eventually bringing in white blood cells to the affected area for fighting against foreign particles. In some people, the autoimmune disorder triggers the inflow of WBC even when there is no debris to attack causing joint inflammation and tissue repair.


How exactly joint inflammation occurs ?


Joint inflammation or swelling is a process in which the affected joint will develop swelling. Although the series of events differ with respect to the causative factor of joint swelling, still for a localized joint pain the following event takes place:-


• Bacteria or fungus enter into the joint


• The blood vessels in that area gets dilated (widened) thereby increasing the blood flow to particular joint


• There would be increased accumulation of protein molecules inside


• Gradually the fluid is filtered and sent inside the joint causing swelling or inflammation


• This is followed by the entry of neutrophils and manocytes (both are white blood cells) into the tissue


• Any infectious bacteria present inside is destroyed


There are several kinds of arthritis (joint inflammation) like osteoarthritis, gout and rheumatoid arthritis affecting various joints of the body.


Symptoms :


There would be stiffness in the joint and is felt more in the mornings. Increased pain in the joint, redness and tenderness are some of the other signs of joint inflammation. Depending on the cause, the joint pain may be moderate or severe restricting the movement of joint. For some people it becomes very difficult to move the joint due to increased stiffness.


Due to the presence of increased white blood cells there can be irritation and some part of the cartilages are worn out adding swelling to the lining of joints.


Other symptoms are fever, chills, headache and fatigue.


Causes :


Autoimmune disorders cause rheumatoid arthritis which can be chronic (for long period). Common form of arthritis is caused by bursitis. Joint inflammation is caused by infections of virus and injury or fracture to the joint. Osteoarthritis is the type of inflammation affecting the bones. Septic arthritis is another type of joint infection causing joint pain and swelling.


Sometimes overuse of joints can trigger joint inflammation causing strain and sprain on particular joint.


Stress can also increase joint pain.


Diagnoses :


The doctor would physically examine the affected joint and look for symptoms of joint stiffness and pain. He may ask you to take X-ray or blood testing depending on the signs and area that is infected.


Treatment :


Joint inflammation can be treated by exercises, medication and even surgery, depending upon the extent of pain and joint damage. Your doctor will consider factors like age, health condition and the intensity of symptoms before starting with treatment.


The main aim of treatment will be to reduce the symptoms that cause pain and stiffness. Anti-inflammatory medications like ibuprofen, corticosteroids like prednisone are given. You need to modify your daily routine for reducing the joint pain. Further you will have to start doing physiotherapy or exercises for managing joint pain. The stress and pressure caused on the joint is reduced by adding splints or braces to the joint.


Certain drugs that stop the signals of feeling of pain in the brain are prescribed for severe pain. Sometimes chemotherapy drugs are also given for lowering the joint pain.


Medications are given for blocking the cyclo oxygenase 1 and 2 in the form of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.


Diet :


You should avoid fatty and fried foods and supplement it by adding more of fresh fruits and veggies. You can include salmon and tuna that contain Omega 3 for fighting inflammation.


Home Remedies :


You can take warm bath and do regular stretching exercise for getting relief from joint pain. In case the pain is not related to arthritis then your doctor will advise you to take enough rest.


You need to approach joint inflammation positively and adapt yourself for living with joint pain.


Myringitis

Myringitis Myringitis is an ear infection that causes blisters and small lumps on the eardrum. It is a painful condition in which the middle ear develops inflammation due to the formation of blisters. Apart from pain, there may be partial hearing loss for 2-3 days as the blister starts growing. The eardrum also called as tympanic membrane lies between the outer ear and middle ear and is responsible for sending sound signals to the brain. Due to bacterial or viral infection, there would be swelling and itching sensation on the ear. It also triggers formation of pus filled blisters on the membrane causing sharp pain in the ear.


Causes :


The main cause for myringitis is Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumonia. The bacteria enter into the eardrum gradually multiplying causing infection and blisters. The eardrum can get infected by bacteria or virus when the person uses the public swimming pool. Swimmer’s ear (acute otitis externs) can also cause ear infection and inflammation.


Symptoms :


There would be considerable pain on the infected ear along with itching or burning sensation. Sometimes, there may be pus like discharge from the ear that is yellow or white in color. The symptoms will be there as long as the blisters survive. In addition there may be common cold, fever, headache and partial hearing loss for 2-3 days until the blisters heal completely. There would be radiating pain for few days, even after the infection is treated.


When the blisters rupture and drains off liquid, there may be discharge of blood along with draining material. The ear canal will be warm and tender owing to the swelling and blister formation.


In case of primary myringitis, the tympanic membrane will be visibly red in color exposing the small blood vessels inside. Further the doctor can also see infected material and visible debris behind the eardrum.


Myringitis is often seen in children and sometimes in adults.


Diagnoses :


Your doctor will look for the signs of ear pain and blisters inside the eardrum. He may test the pus like fluid oozing out from the blister for detecting any bacteria.


Treatment :


Antibiotic medicines are given either in the form of ear drops or as oral medicine. It is necessary to take antibiotics for a course so that bacteria are totally destroyed. Anti-inflammatory medicines can be taken for getting relief from pain. The infection can be contagious and hence the affected person should avoid contacting with others until the symptoms subside.


The doctor may clean the infection and drain the pus from the eardrum. In rare cases, surgery is done (myringoplasty) for removing bacteria and dirt particles from the eardrum.


Pictures of Myringitis :


Images, Pics, Pictures and Photos of Myringitis


Myringitis Myringitis Myringitis Myringitis
Prevention :


• Care must be taken to keep the children away from the infected environment.


• In case if one child gets acute otitis media there is increased chance for spreading the infection to other children in daycare centers.


• The child can be vaccinated with pneumovax so that he will not get infection from pneumoniae bacteria.


• Further the child should be instructed to wash the hands properly before eating.


Bunion

Bunion Bunion is the hump in the bone found on the base of big toe. Hallux valgus is the medical term for bunion. It is marked by the deviation of big toe that would push outward putting pressure on the metatarsal bone thereby forming a bunion. The bone that is located just behind the big toe gets affected making it difficult to walk. When this condition occurs on the little toe it is known as bunionette.


When there is hump on the bone the body weight will be put on the bunion in every step causing intense pain. It may cause calluses when the shoes will also exert pressure thereby aggravating the pain.


Causes :


• Bunions are formed during adulthood and become intense as time passes since the foot spreads when a person grows old.


• Bunions are caused due to hereditary factor since it is passed to the next generation. It is found to run on families.


• Structural abnormality in foot may also cause bunion. Increased arthritis problem can also trigger formation of bunion in the big toe.


• People who wear tight fitting shoes and high-heeled shoes are more prone to get bunion than others. The repeated pressure exerted by the shoes may push the bones of the foot causing irregular shape.


Symptoms :


It is marked by the presence of bony bump on the foot seen on the big toe. Some people may experience hardness in the skin or formation of calluses. There may be swelling and tenderness of the affected area of the skin and moderate pain on the big toe. The area feels warm to touch and becomes shiny.


Diagnoses :


The doctor will obviously listen to the symptoms of pain and bony bump and examine the shape of the big toe. If needed, X-ray will be taken for assessing the intensity of deformity.


Treatment :


For mild pain and discomfort it is enough it you use heating pad and warm compression on the big toe for getting relief. You can also take over the counter anti-inflammatory drugs like Ibuprofen for relieving pain.


In early stages of detection, bunion can be easily cured by wearing well fitting shoes. It would be wise if you wear splints or bunion pads for making good the inflammation. By using shoe insert, one can easily avoid the pressure exerted by the shoes on the foot. Some doctors prescribe special kind of shoes that take out the pressure from the joints so that the foot will regain its normal shape.


Surgery is not the best option and it is done only if other methods of treatment become futile. Some types of bunions are severe and highly painful but the surgical process has great risk.


Bunionectomy is the name of the surgery that is done in a clinic. The patient will be given local anesthesia for numbing the affected part of general anesthesia depending on the intensity of the disease.


The surgeon will realign the bone after cutting down the ligaments from the big toe. In severe cases, the bone is cut down by osteotomy in which excess of bone may be removed.


For some people, bunions may recur if the surgery is not done perfectly and for some it may be overcorrected. In such cases, the person will have continuous pain and it would also restrict the movements of big toe.


Pictures of Bunion :


Images, Pics, Pictures and Photos of Bunion


Bunion Bunion Bunion Bunion Bunion Bunion Bunion
Prevention :


You can prevent bunions from occurring by taking care of your feet from childhood and more particular in adulthood. People with family history of illness need to be more careful than others. Always wear right fitting shoes that do not exert pressure on the toes. Do not indulge in cramping or pinching the toes.


Women who are wearing high heeled shoes are prone to get bunion and other bone deformity in the foot.


Ankle Injuries

Ankle Injuries Ankle injury may occur to anyone any time. Earlier it was thought that this type of injury is reserved only for sports personalities but you may get injured by simply walking on uneven surface. Injury may be mild (sprain) or intense (fracture) or moderate (tear in tendon). Men are more prone to get this type of injury than women.


There are three types of injury involved in the ankle namely bone, tendon and ligament. Ankle is the place where one can find the union of three bones – tibia, fibula and talus. All these bones are fused together at the point of ankle joint. Ligaments bind them using connective tissue which eventually keep the bones intact. A tendon is attached to the muscles of bones and is responsible for movement of foot and ankle.


Fracture occurs when there is a break in bone. A sprain occurs when the ligaments are damaged or stretched beyond their capacity and a strain develops when there is damage to the muscles or tendons. When compared with fracture, strains are common in legs and ankle. If there is any injury on the tendon it develops inflammation. There may be microscopic tears on the ligaments causing sprain.


When the tendons are being repeatedly stretched for long time, it may cause tendinosis and in rare cases, it may rupture.


Causes :


Ankle injury is caused when a person walks on irregular surface and due to repeated sports activities. Sometimes it can occur during a fall or a jump in awkward position and due to sudden injury or trauma while driving a bike or car.


It may also develop when a person is twisting the ankle beyond limit on repeated attempts.


First Aid :


Before visiting your doctor you can alleviate the pain by therapy named RICE.


Rest : Take complete rest and do not strain your ankle causing more damage.


Ice  : Applying ice over the area can help in reducing the pain.


Compression : You can get help from someone for wrapping the injured ankle with compression for keeping it intact.


Elevate : Keep the ankle in elevated (raised) level.


Diagnoses :


Your doctor will examine the injured ankle and may ask for X-ray to find out the extent of damage.


Treatment :


Fracture :


In case of fracture, it can be treated without surgery in advanced medicine. The affected ankle will be put on splint or cast to keep it immobilized. For some cases, he may use metal plating and screws for keeping the bones intact.


Surgery is done only if the bones become unstable and are out of place. In case of severe fracture, it might take about 1-2 years for the ligaments and joints to get healed completely. After surgery and break period, the patient will be given physiotherapy for strengthening the bones.


Sprain :


For mild form of sprain, first aid treatment of RICE is repeated for many weeks until the swelling subside. In many cases, the pain will reduce after 2-3 days and you should not put weight on the ankle for few days.


For moderate sprain, apart from compressor or ice application, your doctor may put you on a splint or boot for keeping the ligaments intact. After complete healing, the person will be asked to follow certain exercises for gaining strength on the ankle. It may take some time for resuming to regular walking.


For severe form of sprain there would be tearing on the ligament and it takes more time for it to heal.


First, the patient will be put on splint or cast to keep the ankle intact. Once the swelling subsides, he will be asked to do physiotherapy or stretching and strengthening the ligaments. In case the pain does not get reduced, surgery may be done for reconstructing the ligaments that are torn.


Very often, a person having a sprain will need 3-7 days of rest, after which he will do regular exercise for gaining strength. For gaining enough flexibility and get back to normal position, it might take several weeks or even months.


Pictures of Ankle Injuries :


Images, Pics, Pictures and Photos of Ankle Injuries


Ankle Injuries Ankle Injuries Ankle Injuries Ankle Injuries
Tendon :


If there is injury in the tendon, the doctor will use a cast or splint and give anti-inflammatory medicine for reducing pain. In severe cases, surgery is done for repairing the torn tendons.


Prevention :


Reduce your weight, if you are obese. Do regular exercises. Watch your step to avoid fall.