Chủ Nhật, 13 tháng 10, 2013

Glioma – Prognosis, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Glioma – Prognosis, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

What is Glioma?


This is a fairly large grouping of spinal cord as well as brain tumors that develop from the glial cells, which are the main cells of the brain that may grow into cancer.








The only factor of risk for malignant gliomas is any previous radiation to the head. Family history or genetics only accounts for much less than 5% of these tumors developing. Other genetic disorders can enhance the risk of these tumors emerging in children but infrequently in adults.


There does not seem to be any everyday life risk factors linked with gliomas malignancies. This means that cigarette smoking, cell phone use as well as alcohol use do not contribute to these cancers.


Glioma Prognosis


The prognosis, symptoms as well as management of a malignant glioma vary on the individual’s age, the location of the tumor as well as the exact type of tumor within the brain. These types of tumors are prone to infiltrate and grow into the normal tissue of the brain – making removal surgically very difficult – or often impossible and can greatly complicate treatment.


The chance of these types of brain tumors grow with age but normally reaches the peak risk ages at 75 to 84. Normally low-grade types of gliomas may develop in children and these tumors are to some extent more prone to happen in males.


Glioma Symptoms


Types of glial cells in the human brain consist of:


Astrocytes
These cells offer a system of support physically as well as seclusion for neurons. Thru phagocytosis, these cells clean up rubbish in the brain providing nourishment and an environment that is healthy chemically for the neurons.


Microglia
These smaller glial cells are associated with the immunity system; they aid to stop the assault of microorganisms


Oligodendrocytes
Globular cells reach with a number of arms, to bundle up nearby axons with myelin. This myelin protects individual axons and advances the efficiency of impulse broadcast.


Most symptoms and signs from tumors of the brain result from pressure which increased within the rigid skull that does not permit the brain to significantly expand as the tumor grows. Other indications are secondary to effects upon nearby structures as well as inflame associated with malignant invasion.


Signs and symptoms consist of:

  • Headache – most common symptom

  • Vomiting – can accompany headache

  • Loss of memory

  • Lethargy

  • Changes in personality

  • Combative or aggressive behavior

  • Generalized or focal seizures

  • Impairment of motion of sensation in a region of the body

  • Loss of hearing

  • Walking difficulties

  • Visual defects

  • Loss of vision

  • Vertigo

  • Inability to smell

  • Nystagmus

  • Tremor

  • Urinary urgency

  • Incontinence

  • Difficulty speaking

  • Difficulty understanding what other are saying

  • Excessive appetite or thirst

  • Inappropriate denial of illness

  • Denial of injury or bodily defects

  • Visual hallucinations


Many symptoms and signs of gliomas can mimic other psychiatric or medical entities. Symptoms that are neurological that cannot be explained need to be promptly investigated.



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Glioma Causes


The cause of brain tumors which are primary is unknown. Some tend to be genetic so individuals who inherit specific genes can be most likely to develop a brain tumor. In some other cases, an individual’s genes might change as they grow. Environmental factors such as radiation, food or chemical can cause these changes to genes.


Brain tumors that are secondary develop by tumors in other areas of the body as well as spreading to the brain.


Glioma Treatment


Physicians have numerous procedures or techniques to identify if an individual has a tumor of the brain. First, a physician will do a physical examination as well as asks for the individual’s medical history. If a tumor of the brain is believed to be present, the individual will normally be referred to a neurologist. The neurologist will normally order neurological tests in order to see how these nerves in the spinal cord as well as the brain are functioning. Other tests normally will include:



  • X-ray of the chest

  • Blood tests

  • CAT scans or CT scans

  • MRI

  • EEG

  • Sample of tissue from the tumor to define the type of tumor


For astrocytoma tumors that are low-grade, MRI is normally the best method to observe the tumor. Astrocytoma tumors that are high-grade are better viewed using a CT scan. The tumor grade may as well be decided on by viewing the cells under a microscope.


If a tumor of the brain is diagnosed, the best treatment method may be decided on by what is best for the patient; for example whether it is safe for the individual to drive.


Individuals with gliomas normally combine various types of treatment for the greatest chance of recovery. Treatments that are possible include radiation, chemotherapy as well as surgery.


Medications are helpful in treatment of glioma
Antiepileptic drugs help to reduce the possibility of seizures. Chemotherapy can help to kill or damage cells of cancer. Regrettably, chemotherapy drugs affect cells that are healthy and lead to side effects such as vomiting and hair loss. Corticosteroid drugs are often given to lessen the swelling around the brain tumor.


Surgery
Surgery is advised in the majority of cases to remove the tumor. The surgeon can determine removal of the entire or part of the tumor depending on the location. If the tumor is close or on the stem of the brain, surgery is more challenging. Surgery can be also done in order to relieve any pressure inside of the brain.


Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy uses x-ray beams in order to destroy cells of cancer in the tumor. Radiation therapy can damage tissue that is healthy around the tumor but physicians attempt to limit the damage as much as possible. Radiation may be done in the beginning with no other therapy or if the disease comes back after surgery.


Clinical trials
Clinical trials for new medications that are experimental or the use of alternative therapies, for instance herbal, reflexology, acupuncture as well as Chinese medicine, or options that individuals can choose to enroll in. An individual can ask their physician about what trials are currently offered that could suit their treatment needs and what complementary therapies are available. In most cases, individuals choose to use alternative or complementary therapies along with the treatment already advised by their physician.


In order to reduce the risk of developing various types of cancer, make choices every day that are healthy. A few of these choices consist of:



  • Eating a diet that is healthy

  • Quit smoking

  • Regular exercising

  • Maintain a weight that is healthy

  • Limit alcoholic drinks

  • Reduce exposure to the sun as well as tanning beds

  • Lessen exposure to chemicals

  • Handle chemicals safely or as instructed













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