Chủ Nhật, 13 tháng 10, 2013

Menorrhagia – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Medication

Menorrhagia – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Medication

What is Menorrhagia?


This is a condition that most every woman has had several times in their reproductive life. This is a medical term for heavy bleeding in the course of the menstrual period. Women with menorrhagia have this every month, a period that causes extreme blood loss as well as cramping which keeps them from continuing their normal daily activities. So, prolonged or excessive periods – or both together is menorrhagia.








Even though menstrual bleeding which is heavy is a concern that is common amid premenopausal women, there are few women who actually experience loss of blood so severe to be referred to as menorrhagia. For women who have these heavy periods of bleeding, they should speak of the problem with their physician. There are currently many treatments and management techniques for menorrhagia which are effective.


Menorrhagia Symptoms


Menstrual flow which is normal:



  • Occurs every twenty-one to thirty-five days

  • Continues 4 to 5 days

  • Yields a blood loss that is a total of around two to three tablespoons.


The cycle of menstruation is not exactly alike for each woman. The period can be irregular or regular, heavy or light, pain-free or painful, short or long and can still be measured as normal. Menorrhagia denotes approximately 5 ½ tablespoons or more loss of blood during each menstrual cycle.


Symptoms and signs of menorrhagia include:



  • Menstrual blood flow which soaks thru 1 or additional sanitary napkins or tampons each hour for numerous hours in a row.

  • The need for using double the sanitary protection in order to control the menstrual flow.

  • Needing to change safeguard sometime during the night

  • Periods that last longer than 7 days

  • Flow which often includes large clots of blood

  • Heavy blood flow that restricts or interferes with regular activities

  • Fatigue, shortness of breath or tiredness which are all signs of anemia


Doctors normally endorse that all women who are sexually active as well as women older than 21 yoa need to have pelvic examinations as well as Pap exams yearly. But, if you have irregular or heavy vaginal bleeding, you need to visit with your physician and be sure to record times of bleeding occurring each month. If you are having vaginal bleeding which is heavy, saturating at least 1 tampon or sanitary pad every hour for much more than several hours – seek out medical assistance. Especially talk to your physician if you have bleeding later than menopause.


Menorrhagia Causes


There are cases where the reason for menstrual bleeding which is heavy is not known, but there are numerous conditions which can be the cause of menorrhagia. Some causes include:


Imbalance of hormones
In menstrual cycles which are normal, there is a sense of balance between hormones progesterone and estrogen which regulates the accumulation of the uterus lining – known as endometrium. It is the lining that is gotten rid of during menstruation. If there imbalance of hormones, this endometrium lining will develop excessively and when it sheds monthly causes menstrual bleeding which is heavy.


Ovary Dysfunctioning
Absence of ovulation which is known as anovulation can cause imbalances of hormones and can cause menorrhagia.


Uterine fibroids
Fibroids are non-cancerous or benign tumors in the uterus which appear during the reproductive years. Uterine fibroids can cause prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding.


Polyps
These are benign, small growths on the lining of the uterine wall known as uterine polyps. They may cause prolonged and heavy menstrual bleeding. These polyps usually happen in women of childbearing age as a result of levels of hormone which are high.


Adenomyosis
This is a condition occurring when endometrium glands become implanted in the muscle of the uterus and it also causes pain and heavy bleeding. Adenomyosis is likely to grow when a woman is middle-aged and has had several children.


Intrauterine device IUD
When using IUDs, menorrhagia is a side effect, well known, of using this type of birth control. If the cause of heavy menstrual bleeding is an IUD, the device will need to be removed.


Complications of Pregnancy
A heavy, single, late period can be due to a miscarriage. If heavy bleeding occurs at the normal period of menstruation, miscarriage is doubtful to be the reason. An “ectopic pregnancy” – which is implantation of an egg which is fertilized in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus, can also cause menorrhagia.


Cancer
Usually rare, uterine cancer, cervical cancer or ovarian cancer may be the cause of excessive menstrual bleeding.


Bleeding disorders inherited
Several blood coagulation conditions – for example von Willebrand’s disease, which is a problem where a needed factor of blood-clotting is impaired or deficient – may cause menstrual bleeding abnormality.
Medications
Certain medications, such as anti-inflammatory drugs as well as anticoagulants use to stop blood clots; may add to prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding. Use of hormone medication which is inappropriate also can be the reason for menorrhagia.



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Additional medical disorders
Numerous other medical problems, such as “pelvic inflammatory disease” PID, endometriosis, thyroid problems or kidney disorders, can cause menorrhagia.


Menorrhagia Treatment


Specific treatment of menorrhagia is founded on numerous factors, including:



  • Entire medical and health history

  • Severity and cause of the problem

  • Tolerance of specific medications, therapies or procedures

  • Future childbearing plans

  • The probability that periods will start being less heavy soon

  • Effects on lifestyle of the condition

  • Individual personal preference or opinion


Drug management for menorrhagia can consist of:


Supplemental Iron
If this condition also comes with anemia, it might be necessary for the woman to take iron regularly. If the level of iron is low but you are not up till now anemic, you can begin iron supplements instead of waiting until you actually become anemic.


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDS
For example ibuprofen helps to decrease menstrual blood loss. NSAIDS have the additional advantage of also dismissing painful menstrual cramps.


Oral Contraceptives
Apart from giving effective birth control, these medications can help control menstrual cycles as well as reduce any episodes of prolonged or excessive menstrual bleeding.


Oral Progesterone
Taken for 10 or additional days of every menstrual cycle, this hormone progesterone helps to correct any hormonal imbalance as well as decrease menorrhagia.


The hormonal IUD
This is a kind of intrauterine device releasing a kind of progestin named levonorgestrel, that can thin the lining of the uterus as well as decreases menstrual blood flow as well as cramping.


If the woman has menorrhagia because of hormonal drugs, she and her doctor might be able to manage the condition by stopping or changing the medication.


An individual may need treatment surgically for menorrhagia if drug management is fruitless. Surgery possibilities include:


Dilation and Curettage – D & C
This is a procedure where the surgeon opens or dilates the cervix and then suctions or scrapes tissue from the uterine lining to lessen menstrual bleeding. While this process is common and often used successfully in the treatment of menorrhagia you might need added D & C techniques if menorrhagia recurs.


Operative Hysteroscopy
This is a technique using a tiny tube light (hysteroscope) in order to examine the cavity of the uterus and aids in the removal surgically of any polyps which might be the cause for extreme menstrual bleeding.


Endometrial Ablation
With the use of diversities of procedures, the physician can permanently destroy the entire uterus or endometrium lining. Following endometrial ablation, many women have no or less menstrual flow. Endometrial ablation decreases the ability to get pregnant.


Hysterectomy
This is surgical deletion of the cervix and uterus and is a procedure which is permanent and causes sterility as well as termination of all menstrual periods. Hysterectomy is done under anesthesia and needs hospitalization. Added removal of the ovaries can cause early menopause in younger women.


With the exception of hysterectomy, most surgical processes are typically performed as outpatient procedures. Although the woman might need a general anesthetic, it is expected that you can go home late on the identical day.


When menorrhagia is an indication of another disorder for instance thyroid disease, managing the underlying disorder usually results in periods which are lighter.













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