Chủ Nhật, 13 tháng 10, 2013

Pyelonephritis – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Pyelonephritis – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

What is Pyelonephritis?


This is a kidney infection that is a definite type of infection of the urinary tract that usually begins in the bladder or urethra and can move up into the kidneys.








Any kidney infection needs rapid attention medically. If a kidney infection is not treated appropriately the kidneys can have permanent damage or the infection can migrate to the blood system and cause an infection that is life-threatening.


Pyelonephritis or any kidney infection treatment normally includes antibiotes and often need hospitalization.


Pyelonephritis Symptoms


Symptoms and signs of an infection of the kidneys can consist of:



  • Back, groin or side pain

  • Fever

  • Frequent urination

  • Abdominal pain

  • Persistent and strong urge to urinate

  • Blood or pus in the urine – hematuria

  • Sensation of burning or pain when urinating


If an individual has any symptoms or signs that worry them they need to make a visit to a physician especially if they are being already in treatment for a UTI or urinary tract infection and the symptoms or signs are not getting better.


Kidney infections that are severe often can turn to life-threatening difficulties. Instant medical attention is needed if the individual is experiencing characteristic kidney infection symptoms especially if combined with nausea, bloody urine and vomiting.


Pyelonephritis Causes


Infections of the kidneys normally occur because bacteria enter the urinary tract thru the urethra and start to multiply. Bacteria from an infection in some other area of the body can spread thru the blood system to the kidneys. Infections of the kidney is not normally because of this route to the kidneys but it often can occur in this method – for instance; when some foreign body, such as an joint that is artificial or heart valve gets infected. Very rarely, infections of the kidneys results after some sort of surgery on the kidneys.


Some factors which can increase the risk of an infection of the kidneys consist of:


Anatomy female
Women normally have the greatest hazard of kidney infections than do males. The women’s urethra is shorter than a man’s, so any infection has less of a space to travel from outside of the body to the bladder. The closeness of the urethra to the vagina as well as anus also can offer more occasions for bacteria to reach the bladder. When inside the bladder, an infection can then migrate easily to the kidneys.


Urinary tract obstruction
Anything which impedes the urine flow or reduces the ability to totally empty the bladder when urinating, for instance kidney stones, structural abnormalities in the urinary tract or, for men, enlargement of the prostate gland, can increase the risks of infections to the kidneys..


Debilitated immunization system
Many medical conditions impair the immune system, for instances diabetes, cancer or HIV; increase the risk of infections of the kidneys. Some drugs, such as medications to avert denial of transplanted organs, have a comparable effect.


Nerve damage round the bladder
Spinal or nerve cord damage can block sensations of an infection of the bladder so that the individual is unaware when it is becoming an infection in the kidney.
Urinary catheter use that is prolonged
Urinary catheters or tubes used to channel urine from the bladder. An individual might have a catheter located in the bladder typically during and after some types of surgery or diagnostic tests. Often catheters are under continuous use when an individual is restricted to a bed.



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Conditions that causes the urine to stream in the opposite way
Small quantity of urine flowing from the bladder back up into the ureters and kidneys – especially in vesicoureteral reflux. Individuals who have this condition can have kidney infections frequently especially as a child and are an even advanced risk of infections during both adulthood and childhood.


When left untreated, an infection of the kidney may lead to serious often life-threatening difficulties, such as:


Kidney damage that is permanent
An infection of the kidney may lead to permanent damage to the kidneys that can cause kidney failure that is chronic.


Septicemia or blood poisoning
The kidneys screen waste from the blood and returns the blood to the remainder of the body. If there is an infection of the kidney, the bacteria can migrate as the blood is return to circulation.


Complications of pregnancy
Females who cultivate an infection of the kidney during pregnancy can have an amplified risk of having babies of low birth rate.


Pyelonephritis Diagnosis


The physician may suspect an infection of the kidneys based on symptoms and signs, for instance upper back pain and fever. If the physician suspects a kidney infection, he/she will normally ask for a urine test in order to culture for blood, bacteria or pus in the urine.


Pyelonephritis Treatment


Antibiotics – Antibiotics are the first line of therapy for infections of the kidneys. The drug that is used and for how long normally depends on the health condition as well as the bacteria that is found in the urine tests.


Normally, the symptoms and signs of an infection of the kidneys start to resolve in a few days with treatment. But the individual needs to continue taking the antibiotics for 7 days or even longer. Take the entire course of antibiotic therapy that is advised by the physician in order to confirm that any infection is totally eradicated.


Severe infections of the kidneys and hospitalization
For infections of the kidneys that are severe, the doctor often may admit the individual to the hospital. Therapy while hospitalized can include IV antibiotics. The length of hospital stay normally depends on how severe the condition is.


Recurrent treatment for infections of the kidney
If kidney infections frequently recur or become chronic, the doctor will normally recommend that the individual seek medical advice from a professional who can ID potentially and underlying treatable causes.


Infections of the kidneys that are recurrent can be caused by an underlying problem medically, such as abnormal structures. The physician can refer the individual to a nephrologist or kidney specialist or urinary surgeon known as an urologist for evaluation in determining if urologic irregularities can be causing the infections. Structural abnormalities can be repaired surgically.













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